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Санга Челлинг. # 19
1924

Н.К.Рерих. Санга Челлинг. # 19. 1924

Ссылка на изображение: http://gallery.facets.ru/pic.php?id=710&size=3

                 
Атрибуты картины

Название Санга Челлинг. # 19
Год 1924
Серия Сикким (составлена в 1924 г.)
Где находится Частная коллекция. Россия. Москва
Материалы, размеры Холст, темпера. 73.5 x 117.5 см.
Источник Атриб.:Каталог живописи и графики Н.К.Рериха. Сост.В.Бендюрин http://www.roerich-encyclopedia.facets.ru/kartiny.html
Примечание Встречается название картины одним словом "Сангачелинг". Картина продана 24.11.2008 на аукционе Sotheby's London и 3.12.2009 на аукционе MacDougall's London.

Н.К. РЕРИХ Алтай — Гималаи. Предисл. Б.Г.Гафурова. Послесл. А.П.Окладникова. М., «Мысль», 1974.с.48-49,54

...Вот «Небесная Священная Гора», и на вершине ее блестит горное озеро. Там маленький храм, основанный на месте жития основателя красной секты в Сиккиме. Из Дубди основатель перешел на Святое озеро, а оттуда в древний Санга Челлинг.

Четыре древнейших монастыря Сиккима: Дубди, Санга Челлинг, Далинг и Роблинг. И значение названий отличное: «место размышления», «остров тайного учения», «остров молнии», «остров счастливого устремления».

Славный монастырь Санга Челлинг.

...В Санга Челлинге нет реликвий, но зато там камень, освященный благословением основателя. Когда чиста жизнь монастыря, прочен и камень. Всякая грязь жизни заставляет камень трескаться.

Вот они мои милые новгородские и ярославские дверки. Вот она прекрасная фресковая живопись. Вот они цветные орнаменты, обвившие все наличники оконцев и дверей. Вот те же согбенные спины богомольцев, преданных вере. И огни прилежных приношений. И наши кули засвечивают огонек. Истинная лепта вдовицы. А над ними властно возвышается «держатель молнии».

...Как в сказке. Как на блюдечке за серебряным яблочком. Открываются холмы и ступени Гималаев. Сто монастырей Сиккима. Наверное, гораздо больше. Каждый из них увенчал вершину холма. Малый храмик в Чаконге. Большой субурган и монастырь в Ринченпонге. На следующей горе белеет Пемайанцзе. Еще выше — Санга Челлинг. Ташидинг мало виден. По другую сторону долины — Далинг. Против него — Роблинг. Ближе — Намцзе. За сорок миль видны монастыри. Забываем, что здесь видится необычно далеко.

И опять перед нами стена на Тибет. И не хребет ящера, но белоснежный пояс раскинулся по вершинам стены. Пояс Земли. Поставим стрелу на север. Там должны быть основания горы Меру...

З.Г. Фосдик. Мои Учителя. Встречи с Рерихами. (По страницам дневника: 1922-1934)

"Силуэты Города Будущего" (см.дневник З.Г Фосдик 2.XII.24):

"Н.К. повел нас объяснять новые картины. Привожу

объяснения:

Средняя комната

1) [«Субурганы в Ташидинге»]. Священные Ступы в Ташидинге

перед восходом Солнца.

2) Монастырь Нам-зе.

3) [«Святые дары»(?)]. Дрона — ученик Будды — раздает

священный пепел.

4) [«Красный лама»]. Очертание горной гряды Эвереста. Лама

в красном играет на флейте перед восходом. Наброски

Канченджанги.

1-я комната

Серия «Сикким»:

1) «Санга Челлинг». Лама медитирует на камне, который дает

трещину, если жизнь в монастыре нечиста (легенда).

2) [«Канченджанга»]. Гряда Канченджанги.

3) [«Ташидинг»]. Ташидинг с монастырем на вершине.

4) [«Силуэты»]. Силуэты Города Будущего.

5) [«Пемайандзе»]. Поселок лам вблизи Пемай¬андзе.

6) [«Ринченпонг»]. Монастырь Ринченпонг во время муссона.

7) [«Гималаи»]. Предгорья Гималаев.

8) Ступени к Гималаям.

9) «Лао-цзы». Возвращается на священном быке из Китая в

Тибет. Бамбуковый лес.

10) «Цзонкапа». Медитирует на горе Менданг. Суровые скалы,

будто непосредственное деяние духа.

11) «Падма Самбхава». Маг.

12) [«Путь»]. Христос. Легенда о его хождении в Тибет в

возрасте 25-27 лет.

13) «Рождение мистерий». Сочетание раннегреческих и

восточных форм. Ритм и единство океанских волн и небесных

облаков. Рождение нового культа*.

14) [«Матерь Мира»]. Основана на видении. Культ Предвечной

Матери Мира. Рыбы — символ молчания. Пейзаж внизу —

подходы к Тибету.

3-я комната

[Серия] «Его Страна»:

1) [«Помни»]. Начало достижений.

2) [«Спешащий»]. Вестник.

3) «Книга Мудрости». Предгималаи.

4) [«Ведущая»]. Ведет по Пути — над ледником. Гуань-инь —

символ Матери Мира.

5) «Жемчуг исканий». Равновесие земного и небесного.

6) [«Будда в подводном царстве»]. Глубже глубин.

7) «Выше гор». Эверест с высоты.

8) «Жар-цвет». Черный аконит, находимый в районе

Канченджанги, не легенда, но быль.

9) [«Конь Счастья»]. [Камень] Чинтамани. Белый Конь

мудрости, приносит с гор священный Камень человечеству.

Скалы в форме человеческих фигур — свидетели.

«Сожжение тьмы». Воинство Красоты, трудящееся во благо

человечества. Место было узнано участниками экспедиции на

Эверест*.

«Звезда Матери Мира». Напоминает о новом культе Азии.

«Белый Храм». Зодчество облачных форм.

«Джелап-ла». Путь на Тибет.

<...>

«Турфанская Мадонна». Древнейшее изображение Богоматери*.

<...>"

PROVENANCE и др. информация

http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2008/russian-art-evening-l08116/lot.21.html

RUSSIAN ART EVENING

24 NOVEMBER 2008 | 7:00 PM GMT

LONDON

21

PROPERTY FROM AN IMPORTANT PRIVATE COLLECTION, ENGLAND

Nikolai Konstantinovich Roerich

SANGACHELING

Estimate

500,000 — 700,000

GBP

LOT SOLD. 825,250 GBP

Nikolai Konstantinovich Roerich

1874-1947

SANGACHELING

signed with artist's cypher in Cyrillic l.r.

tempera on canvas

73.5 by 117.25cm., 29 by 46in.

READ CONDITION REPORTSALEROOM NOTICE

PROVENANCE

Roerich Museum, New York, 1924–1935

Nettie and Louis Horch, USA

EXHIBITED

New York , Roerich Museum permanent collection, 1924–1935, no. 479

LITERATURE

List of Nicholas Roerich Paintings, 1917–1924. Autograph, Nicholas Roerich Museum archive, New York, no.19.

F. Grant et al. Roerich, Himalaya, A Monograph. New York: Brentano Publ., 1926, p.199 (reproduced p.191)

Roerich Museum Catalogue. New York: Roerich Museum, 1930, p.21

A.V.Yaremenko, Nicholai Konstantinovich Roerich: His Life and Creations During the Past Forty Years, New York: Central Book Trading Co., 1931, p.38 (illustrated pl. 91)

Y.Petrova, A Time to Gather: Russian Art from Foreign Private Collections, 2007, p.125, no.80, (illustated)

CATALOGUE NOTE

After his arrival in India in late 1923, Roerich produced close to one hundred canvases, strikingly different from his previous work, in less than a year. He developed his new style of painting, responding to the grandeur of the Himalayan vistas and glorified artifices of the Buddhist tradition. Sangacheling is part of his Sikkim series of 13 paintings, which he completed while travelling in the region, and it is one of the finest examples of the new style, marked for its freshness of perspective and forceful execution.

Roerich, who was interested in philosophical aspects of Buddhism at the time, is inspired here by his visit to one of the oldest and most important monasteries of Sikkim, situated near the little town of Pelling. Founded in 1705, Sangacheling (Sangachoeling) adheres to the Nyingma tradition, the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. He remarks, "An interesting monastery is Sanga Chelling... there are no relics, but there rests a stone made sacred by the blessing of the founder; when the life of the monastery is unalloyed, the stone is firm, but each deviation makes the stone creak."

The composition invokes a parallel with a ship, with the monk as its captain. Sitting on a rock that looms over a precipice, he has the support of the teachings, symbolized by stupas, but he will ultimately be the one who will determine the future of his own spirit, and that of Buddhism. Mirroring Roerich's words, if the monk's spirit cracks, the stone breaks.

Roerich displays his skill and new vision in the quality of his lines. They are the focus, with almost no detail in the surfaces. It allows him to suffuse the painting with a yellow light, a significantly symbolic colour in Buddhism, and to convey the strength of the monk's spirit, as it it subtly balances the enormous stupas.

We are grateful to Gvido Trepša, Senior Researcher at The Nicholas Roerich Museum, New York for providing this note.

MacDougall's 3.12.2009:

221. ROERICH, NICHOLAS (1874-1947)

Sangacheling, from the series Sikkim, signed with a monogram.

Tempera on canvas, 73 by 117.5 cm.

500,000-700,000 pounds

Provenance: The Roerich Museum, New York, 1924–1935.

Nettie & Louis Horch, USA, from 1935.

Private collection, UK.

Exhibited: The Roerich Museum, New York (permanent collection), 1924–1935, No. 179.

Literature: F. Grant et al., Roerich. Himalayas. A Monograph, New York, Brentano Publ., 1926, p. 199, 191, illustrated. The Roerich Museum Catalogue, New York, Roerich Museum, 1930, p. 21.

A. V. Yaremenko, Nicholai Konstantinovich Roerich: His Life and Creations During the Past Forty Years, New York, Central Book Trading Co., 1931, p. 38, plate 91, illustrated.

Y. Petrova, A Time to Gather. Russian Art from Foreign Private Collections, 2007, p. 125, No. 80, illustrated.

List of Nicholas Roerich Paintings, 1917–1924, Autograph, The Nicholas Roerich Museum Archive, New York, No. 19.

If one would attempt to divide Nicholas Roerich’s long artistic career into two main periods, the year 1924 would be a distinct and recognizable borderline. He spent the first nine months of that year living in Darjeeling, India, travelling throughout the region and painting his visions of spiritual forces shaping the material world: Himalayan landscapes, villages and monasteries. He expressed his fascination with “the roof of the World” (the Himalayas) and India’s ageless spiritual traditions by instantly acquiring a new style of painting marked by richness of colour, forcefulness of line, and freshness of perspective. His eighty canvases from this period, neatly organized into four series – His Country, Sikkim, Banners of the East (The Birth of Mysteries) and Himalayan – all bear the signs of that particular vigor and spontaneity which comes with leaving behind old shores and discovering new inspirations. If we had to define Roerich with just a painting or two, it would almost certainly come from 1924.

In this large canvas from the Sikkim series, consisting of thirteen paintings in all, Roerich pays tribute to Buddhist lore by depicting one of the oldest and well-known of its monasteries (of Nyingma tradition) near the village of Pelling. In his travel diary he notes: “An interesting monastery is Sangacheling… there are no relics, but there rests a stone made sacred by the blessing of the founder; when the life of the monastery is unalloyed, the stone is firm, but each deviation makes the stone creak.”

As always in his work, the artist is motivated by the spiritual significance of the subject. His meditation on the theme produces a bold composition: a small human figure balances the vast expanses of brick and stone. For Roerich, it is not outward greatness that determines whether faith endures, but rather the firmness of human spirit. Here, the rock and stupas are held together by the strength of the monk’s will. Without him, the composition collapses; if his spirit cracks, the stone breaks.

The clarity of Roerich’s new vision is manifest in the sharp outlines of the rocks, stupas, and almost geometric simplicity of the figure. By contrast, a glowing, yellow light, a symbolic colour in Buddhism, permeates every inch of the canvas, alternating between flat planes of colour and rough textures of dark orange. The richness of colour and the complexity of composition do not detract from the powerful presence of the solitary figure. In fact, they emphasize the strength of his spirit, as he both harmonizes with and commands his surroundings.

We are grateful to Gvido Trepљa, senior researcher at the Nicholas Roerich

Museum, New York, for providing this note.

Nicholas Roerich had felt strongly drawn to India from as far back as his childhood: when he passed the summer on the estate of Izvara near Gatchina, where he would spend hours gazing at a painting hanging on the wall that had as its subject the celebrated Himalayan mountain peak of Kanchenjungi, and on the occasions when he would sit listening to the conversations of the orientalists A. Pozdneev and K. Golstunskiy when they visited the Roerich family home in St Petersburg.

At last, on 17 November 1923, the Macedonia steamship departed from Marseilles harbour for Bombay, with Roerich and his family aboard. They did not remain on the Indian plain for long. The destination for which they were bound was where the snow-covered peaks of the highest mountains in the world soared to the heavens – the Himalayas. After having made their way through a noisy and hot Calcutta, Roerich and his family arrived in Darjeeling. This small English resort town, the centre of the tea industry, lies in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas. In close proximity to Darjeeling, to the north, there was the small Himalayan principality of Sikkim, nestling between Nepal and Bhutan. On fine clear days, the gigantic snowy mass of the sacred peak of Kanchenjungi could be seen to rear above it. This “snowy country, the outlines of which vary with each change of light ... this eternally turbulent restless ocean of clouds and indescribably diverse varieties of mists” inspired Roerich to create his first major cycle of works dedicated to the Himalayas. One of the masterpieces of the Sikkim series, which consists of a total of thirteen canvases, is the arge canvas now being presented at auction, Sangacheling.

The lost Himalayan independent principality of Sikkim, to which access had only just been granted to Europeans, became the first stage of the expedition route. The principality presented a unique image both in terms of nature and from a cultural perspective. Arranged on a multitude of hills, from time to time one would come across evergreen jungles with luxuriant vegetation, pheasants, leopards and monkeys. Over all of this world filled with the splendours of nature there soared the seventeen snow-capped peaks of the Himalayas. The small area within which Sikkim was contained also encompassed almost every climatic zone our planet has to offer, beginning with a subtropical zone and ending with an arctic zone of eternal snows. “A diverse natural world”, Roerich wrote of Sikkim, “a stern larch tree would stand side by side with a rhododendron bush. Everything crowded together, and all these earthly riches faded into the blue mist of the mountainous distance. A bank of clouds covered a glowering haze. It was strange and strikingly unexpected to catch sight of a new cloud-filled composition after having viewed this finished piece of artwork. Above the dusk and waves of clouds there shone the blindingly bright snows of the endless, soaring, almost inaccessible peaks. These were two separate worlds, divided by mist”.

The precipitous mountains of the “land of snow” precluded the use of horses, and therefore the route through this country followed by Roerich and his family had be undertaken on foot and was extremely arduous. They made a study of historical and religious monuments and, most importantly, the ancient monasteries of Sikkim – “the hundred monasteries of Sikkim. Probably considerably more in fact. Each of them sitting astride a peak”.

Amongst this multitude of holy sites, along the expedition route there was to be found one of the oldest and most revered of the country’s monasteries, the monastery of Sangacheling, which was situated next to the settlement of Pelling. Founded in 1705, the monastery adhered to the Nyingma tradition, which is the most ancient of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism. At this time Roerich had been taking a serious interest in the philosophy of Buddhism, and so he spent extended periods of time in conversation with the head of the monastery and met with the lamas, hermits and wise men. The eldest son of the artist, Yuri Nikolayevich, a cultural historian who spoke more than thirty eastern languages, provided him and all the other expedition participants with the opportunity to converse with the local population without interpreters. The high lamas of Sangacheling were considered custodians of secret ancient knowledge. Legends associated the source of such knowledge with the sacred peak of Kanchenjungi – the Mountain of the Five Treasures. Roerich himself later described one of the monastery prophecies in the following words: “In Sangacheling there are no holy relics; instead there is a rock that has been illuminated by the blessing of the founder. When the life of the monastery is pure, the rock is also strong. Any impurity will make the rock crack”.

Thus, we have a stone, a mountain range, and the principal hero of Roerich’s Sangacheling. Masterfully portraying the rock masses and the massive obelisks towering upon them – monumental structures in which relics were stored, possessing a canonical three-part structure: a graduated base, a huge body area, and a crown in the form of a multistage structure and daringly juxtaposing unexpected yellow-brown colour planes – Roerich forces the viewer to perceive this image as a representation of compressed time. He rejects the European historical vision and concepts of time and space and begins to see his landscape clearly, bathed as it is in a golden Buddhist light, from the height and distance of space. The foreground is extremely generalised – small details of the terrain would only interfere with the viewer’s perception of the whole. Thus, Roerich unfocuses the gaze of his viewer by directing it simultaneously towards the peaks and a tiny little figure and the distant skies, which are becoming ever more intensely golden. The landscape is entirely empty, apart from a lone praying monk by the very edge of a precipice. However, it is this monk who in fact emphasises the philosophical subtext of the work, its symbolism and poetry, through the image of the eternal striving of humanity towards knowledge and beauty. The specially developed technique of the artist also made a substantial contribution to the creation of this decorative image. Roerich painted his Himalayan landscapes using tempera on a base of contrasting colours, which created the illusion of luminescence, depth, and transparency and a certain sparkle of the painting materials themselves.

It is notable that the same obelisks covered in Buddhist symbols can also be seen in the work The Horse of Happiness (1925), which provides an entirely different view of the monastery and the settlement spread out next to it.

 

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